Early data show that as of August 8, 2022, the self-reported long-term COVID incidence among women, transgender, Hispanic, and adults without a high school degree is 4 higher than all adults. shown to be one to one-third higher (Figure 1). In this Policy Watch, we use new data on long-term COVID from household pulse surveys reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to explore how these high rates of long-term COVID impact existing disparities in health and employment. to find out what can make it worse. The Pulse Study is an experimental study that provides information about how the COVID pandemic is impacting households from a social and economic perspective. Its main advantage is fast turnaround time, but the data may not meet all Census Bureau quality standards. In June 2022, the survey began asking long COVID questions. These early data provide some important insight into the prevalence of long-term COVID, but so far the sample included only about 150,000 respondents, suggesting that Limited reliability and ability to detect differences between groups. This policy watch focuses on features that the CDC has determined have sufficient observations to report differences between groups.

While there is no clear definition of long-term COVID, the Pulse survey asked respondents to describe “feelings lasting longer than three months, such as fatigue or malaise, difficulty thinking, and problems concentrating, forgetfulness, or memory (sometimes mentioned). We asked if they had any COVID symptoms: difficulty breathing or shortness of breath, joint or muscle pain, heart pounding or pounding (also known as palpitations), chest pain, lightheadedness, menstrual changes, taste/smell changes , or inability to exercise.” Although few other studies assess the long-term socioeconomic impact of COVD, they are consistent with findings from the Pulse study.

Data from Household Pulse show that long-term COVID incidence is higher among female (18%) and transgender (19%) adults compared to males (11%). Differences in male and female proportions have been documented elsewhere. Another study estimated it to be just 0.9% to 1.7% of adult men compared to her 1.4% to 2.2% of adult women in the United States. It is unclear what causes the difference in outcomes between women and men, but the pattern is similar to that of other post-infectious syndromes such as chronic fatigue syndrome. It may be the first published data showing discrete rates of long-term COVID, and the large confidence intervals around the rates suggest considerable uncertainty in the estimates. But other research shows that transgender people have lower incomes, poorer health, and may be more vulnerable to COVID.

One in five (20%) Hispanic adults reported ever having had a prolonged COVID, compared to less than 15% of white, black, or Asian adults. Data are not separately reported for Native Americans and Alaska Natives or Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Although no studies have evaluated the causes of her higher COVID infection rates in Hispanic adults over time, higher COVID infection rates definitely contribute to the difference. Despite higher age-adjusted COVID infection and mortality rates among black adults, we find no difference in long-term COVID incidence rates between black and white adults. Further research is needed to better understand racial and ethnic patterns of long-term incidence of COVID and their relationship to COVID cases and deaths.

20% of adults without a high school diploma report long-term COVID compared to just 12% of college graduates. The Pulse data reported by the CDC do not show a long-term distribution of COVID among people based on income or employment outcomes, but there is a well-established distribution between higher education levels and lower incomes. Because of the relationship, the rates are probably higher for people with lower incomes and incomes who are more likely to have long-term COVID-19. It is unclear to what extent reduced access to pre-infectious health care affects increased long-term COVID incidence, but his study of long-term COVID incidence in the UK found that socioeconomic deprivation was a risk factor. It turns out thatAnalysis of future pulse data using larger sample sizes will help determine whether similar patterns exist in the United States.

Prolonged COVID could disproportionately affect people of working age, worsening employment outcomes in addition to health. Consistent with other studies, the Pulse data show that long-term COVID incidence is highest among working adults. (The very low long-term incidence of COVID in people over the age of 60 may reflect the high mortality rate from COVID in her in this population.) Current research suggests that long-term COVID across the globe will have a significant impact on people’s ability to work. It is too early to know how long-lasting these effects will be, but a recent study found that people who experienced a week of COVID-19-related absenteeism were more likely to work than similar workers who did not take a week off. It turned out to be significantly less likely. take time off from work for health reasons. And according to a recent analysis of survey data, 26% of her people who have had COVID longer reported it had an impact on their employment.

Going forward, the longer COVID lasts, the more likely existing inequalities within society will widen. Even before the pandemic, women were more likely to work in low-paying jobs and receive lower wages for the same level of work as men, and the pandemic will have a particular impact on women’s employment compared to men. Similarly, the high long-term prevalence of COVID among Hispanic adults is likely to exacerbate health, employment and income disparities in this group. Another study found that Latinos and black adults had higher workplace exposures, which contributed to her increased prevalence of COVID, which ultimately led to her having a longer period of time. rice field. Pulse’s data suggests that her long-term impact of COVID, similar to that of the pandemic, may fall disproportionately among adults who are already experiencing disparities in health and employment outcomes. doing. Currently, the sample size is too small to analyze differences between some populations. Future her KFF analysis will leverage additional waves of Pulse survey data to further explore differences between groups that differ by race, ethnicity, income, employment, and other relevant characteristics.

In announcing two new reports related to long-term COVID-19 cases, HHS Secretary Becerra said, “Long-term COVID will impact individual work, school attendance, community participation, and daily activities. may interfere with the ability to participate in Existing research underscores the urgency of understanding the impact of prolonged COVID on people. A recent study shows that her 4 million people in the US may be unemployed as a result of prolonged COVID. The impact is even greater given that job losses are concentrated among people who are already low-income, low-income and who have greater difficulty accessing health care.Additionally, long-term COVID-19 patients are struggling to access disability benefits, which may alleviate some of the economic impact of being unable to work. As is announced, it will be important to develop a better understanding of who is most likely to be affected, the most promising types of treatment, and the long-term impact of COVID on socioeconomic inequality in the United States. What are the social and economic supports that may mitigate



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